**Special Relativity Theory: The Theory of Human Perception**
* A Note of Caution*
One must constantly ask oneself throughout this study, whether the events represented in the formulas for special relativity are commensurable or not.
Can the numerical values produced by the formulas be measured? Are we talking about things that actually exist in spacetime/motion? Or, are physicists just spitting out numbers?
In this study, scientists produce very precise numbers that supposedly reflect a degree of exactness in their theoretical reasoning. Yet, it is impossible to measure any one of the relativistic concepts analyzed here.
The theory of special relativity refers to the observers in different reference frames. The theory of special relativity is in fact a theory of human perception and apprehension; and supposed measurement.
When theorists of special relativity write about an observer seeing an object/mass in motion near the speed of light, and that that object will appear contracted in length to nearly 90% of its length, there is a fallacy in the reasoning.
*Light photon, the fastest thing registered on Earth: *
*299,792,458 m/s = 327,857,018.7 yards/s*
Human beings cannot "see" even a slow bullet that travels hundreds of feet per second being fired from a low-powered weapon, much less an object that nears the speed of light traveling hundreds of thousands of kilometers per second.
Just as a human being cannot "see" a bullet contract in length along its axis of travel, so a human being cannot see a spaceship contract in length travelling at the speed of light along its flight path either.
Furthermore, the theory of special relativity is not stating that the spaceship actually contracts in length, but rather that the observer sees a particular contraction along the line of travel.
The theory of special relativity, in this sense, does not affect the existential nature of the spaceship, its material composition or spacetime/motion make-up. It only launches a thesis about what the observer is seeing, when looking at objects that travel near the speed of light.
Another aspect of the theory is that the basis for making observations about the capabilities of the observer concern the nature of the object being viewed. They go on to state, based on the data for qualifying the capability of human sight, that it is impossible for an object to reach the speed of light based on the same mathematical formulas used to illustrate the nature of human sight.
This shall become clear when we examine the reciprocal nature of the numerical values for relativistic mass and relativistic length, together with other relativistic aspects of matter-energy. In a sense, then, one must be careful in accepting the very idea of "relativity" as it pertains to human perception and apprehension and not to the compositional nature of matter-energy as forms of spacetime/motion.
Examples
Text/Quotes Text/Quotes
Subject/Observer perceives Object observed actually experiences
Apparent changes the perceived changes
_____________________________ ____________________________________
Subject/Observer sees apparent Object/event undergoes increase in mass
mass increase
Subject/Observer notices time Object/Clocks subject to time change,
Dilation, changes in time actually has different
Telling time/clocks duration gradations
Subject/Observer sees apparent Object/mass actually contracts in
Contraction of the length length up to 99% near speed of
Of the object light
Subject/Observer notices increase Object/energy actually experiences
In object's energy increase in its compositional
Energy
The history of general/special relativity began as statements about he observation of objects travelling near the speed of light. Later, and more recently, statements about the subjects/observers became statements about the objects/events observed.
If the subject/observer would supposedly see an increase in mass, a contraction in length, a dilation in time and an increase in energy, then later scientists wrote/write as those the objects/events perceived in that manner, actually experienced those changes in mass/energy/time/length.
The theory of relativity began about the subjects/observers viewing objects/events in a certain way. Then the views became the description of the objects viewed. Science writing went from looking, observing the object, to the object being what it looked like. At first, it looked like it contracted, but later it was said to actually contract. In this sense, we are not so worried about what Albert Einstein said about relativity, but rather what relativists say today and do about relativity.
**Einstein's "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies"**
Key word-concepts in Einstein's 1905 paper "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies", generally quoted as representing ideas about the theory of special relativity. The point to note is the number of times statements refer to the imaginary "observer", yet are not specified. These statements make the difference between proposing imaginary changes in the objects perceived [viewed, measured] and actual changes in the matter-energy objects themselves.
- The *observable* phenomena here…
-…an *observer *stationed together with the watch…
-We might, of course, content ourselves with **time ***values determined by an observer stationed together* with the watch at the origin of the co-ordinates…, But this co-ordination has the disadvantage that it is not independent of the *standpoint** of the observer* with the watch or clock, as we know from experience.
-If at the point A of space there is a clock, an *observer *at A can determine the time values of events…
- …it is possible for an *observer* at B to determine the time values…
-Thus with the help of certain *imaginary* physical experiments…
-The *observer* moves together with the given measuring-rod…
-…the *observer* ascertains at what points of the stationary system…
-We imagine further that with each clock there is a moving *observer*, and that these *observers* apply to both clocks the criterion established in…
-*Observers* moving with the moving rod would thus find that the two clocks were not synchronous, while *observers* in the stationary system would declare the clocks to be synchronous.
-…but that two events which, *viewed* *[by observers]* from a system of co-ordinates, are simultaneous, can no longer be *looked upon* *[by observers] *as simultaneous events when *envisaged** [by observer] *from a system which is in motion relatively to that system.
-We now imagine space *to be measured** [by observer] *from the stationary system K…
-…it being borne in mind that light is always propagated along these axes, when *viewed** [by observer] *from the stationary system…
-But the ray moves relatively to the initial point of k, when* ***measured** [by observer] in the stationary system…
-We now have to prove that any ray of light, *measured** [by observer]* in the moving system, is propagated with the velocity c…
-The wave under consideration is therefore no less a spherical wave with velocity of propagation c when* ***viewed **[by observer] in the moving system.
-We call the co-ordinates, *measured** [by observer] *in the system…
-From reasons of symmetry it is now evident that the length of a given rod moving perpendicularly to its axis *measured** [by observer] *in the stationary system…
-The length of the moving rod *measured** [by observer]* in the stationary system does not change,…
-A rigid body which,** ***measured** [by observer]* in a state of rest, has the form of a sphere, therefore has in a state of motion --*-***viewed** [by observer] from the stationary system---the form of an ellipsoid of revolution with the axis.
-…(and therefore of every rigid body of no matter what form) do not *appear** [to observer]* modified by the motion, the X dimension *appears** [to observer]* shortened in the ratio…
-For v = c all moving objects ---*viewed** [by observer]* from the "stationary" system---
-It is clear that the same results hold good of the bodies at rest in the "stationary" system *viewed** [by observer] *from a system of uniform motion.
-What is the rate of this clock, when* ***viewed** [by observer] from the stationary system?
-Therefore…, whence it follows that the time marked by the clock *viewed** [by observer]* in the stationary system is slow by…seconds per second…
-*[An aside: From this there ensues the following ***peculiar** consequence…; this has become referenced in the science literature as a paradox].
-If at the points A and B of K there are stationary clocks which, *viewed** [by observer] *in the stationary system are synchronous…
- Let a point charge of electricity have the magnitude "one" when *measured** [by observer]* in the stationary system K, …
-By the principle of relativity this electric charge is also of the magnitude "one" when *measured **[by observer]* in the moving system.
-If the quantity of electricity is at rest relatively to the moving system…then the force acting upon it, *measured** [by observer] *in the moving system, is equal to the vector…
-We wish to know the constitution of these waves, when they are *examined by an observer* at rest in the moving system k. *[Here is an example where Einstein filled in the observer.]*
- From the equation for…it follows that if an *observer *is moving with velocity v relatively to an infinitely distant source of light frequency…, in such a way that the connecting line "*source-observer*" makes the angle…with the velocity of the *observer* referred to a system of co-ordinates which is at rest relatively to the source of light, the frequency …of the light *perceived by the observer* is given in the equation…
-We still have to find the amplitude of the waves…accordingly as it is *measured **[by observer]* in the stationary system or [*as it is ***measured** by observer] in the moving system,…
-It follows from these results that to an *observer approaching a source of light with the velocity c,* this source of light must *appear** [to the observer]* of infinite intensity.
-…would be the ratio of the "*measured** [by observer]* in motion" to the "*measured** [by observer]* at rest" energy of a given light complex…whether *measured** [by observer]* in K or *[***measured** by observer] in k.
-We inquire as to the quantity of energy enclosed by this surface, *viewed** [by observer]* in system k…
-The spherical surface ---*viewed** [by observer]* in the moving system--- is an ellipsoidal surface…*[Note: This statement is not stating that "The spherical surface is an ellipsoidal surface; and so on, infinitely so throughout Einstein's paper.]*
-Thus, if we call the light energy enclosed by this surface E when it is *measured** [by observer]* in the stationary system, and …when *measured **[by observer]* in the moving system, we obtain…
* [Note: Between the previous two statements Einstein caused an imaginary scenario to appear real: "***If S is the volume of the sphere**, and …that of this ellipsoid, **then** by a simple calculation…etc.]
-It is remarkable that the energy and the frequency of a light complex vary with the *state of motion of the observer* in accordance with the same law.
-…as follows from the theorem of addition of velocities…the vector…is nothing else than the velocity of the electric charge, *measured** [by observer]* in the system k, we have the proof that, on the basis of our kinematics principles, the electrodynamic foundation of Lorentz's theory of the electrodynamics of moving bodies is in agreement with the principle of relativity.
-If an electrically charged body is in motion anywhere in space without altering its charge when *regarded **[by observer] *from a system of co-ordinates moving with the body, its charge also remains ---*when regarded** [by observer]* from the "stationary" system K ---constant. *[Note: Remove the observers from the previous statement and the following obtains:* *"If an electrically charged body is in motion anywhere in space without altering its charge, its charge also remains constant". **Note the redundancy in this statement.]*
-From the above assumption, in combination with the principle of relativity, it is clear that the immediately ensuing time …the electron, *viewed** [by observer]* from the system k, moves in accordance with the equation…
-…are the components of the pondermotive force acting upon the electron, and are so indeed as *viewed** [by observer]* in a system moving at the moment of the electron, with the same velocity as the electron. (Thus force might be *measured** [by observer]*…by a spring balance at rest in the last-mentioned system.)
-…and if we also decide that the accelerations are to be* ***measured** [by observer] in the stationary system K, we derive from the above
equations…
*[Source: Albert Einstein, "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies. Emphasis mine.]*
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