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The Theoretical Interpretation of Spacetime/motion


A Content Analysis of Selected Word-Concepts in

Albert Einstein's 1905 Article

"Concerning an Heuristic Point of View

Toward the Emission and Transformation of Light"

 

 

 

By Charles William Johnson

©2014 Copyrighted

Earth/matriX: Science Today

www.earthmatrix.com                                                       charles@earthmatrix.com

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P.O. Box 231126, New Orleans, LA 70183-1126 USA

 

            In reading the science literature mainly in today's physics, one obtains specific ideas about what Albert Einstein supposedly wrote and stated in his articles published in 1905 in the American Journal of Physics. However, in reading the articles, one obtains a different idea, sometimes contradictory to the many interpretations that exist regarding his work.

 

            Innumerable critiques exist of Einstein's writing. In a certain sense it is relevant to distinguish between what Einstein said and wrote, and what others have later said and wrote about his ideas. In my view, what is most relevant is to examine what relativists believe today, whether or not those beliefs are actually based on the word-concepts and ideas of Einstein himself. It is customary to critique current ideas by stating that these contemporary ideas do not reflect what Einstein himself believed. But, this kind critique has only certain relevance to the discussion.

 

            What is required is understanding and critiquing the current ideas held by relativists, no matter what their origin may be. These are the ideas of our times and require examination. Nonetheless, in order to be able to comprehend the current line of discussion within physics and chemistry today, it is necessary to at least examine some of the word-concepts in Einstein's work. They serve as a basis to evaluating current beliefs in science.

 

            In this section, a selection of word-concepts and ideas is presented based on the following article published by Einstein in 1905.

 

Albert Einstein, Concerning an Heuristic Point of View Toward the Emission and Transformation of Light, American Journal of Physics, v.33, n.5, May 1905.

 

A content analysis: summary of order of appearance of word-concepts and corresponding theses.

 

Electrons

Energy is to be considered a continuous spatial function

Of all purely electromagnetic phenomena including light

Energy of a ponderable object

Energy of a beam of light…is continuously spread an ever increasing volume

The wave theory of light…may lead to contradictions …applied to the phenomena of emission and

            transformation of light

The energy of light is discontinuously distributed in space

The energy of a light ray …consists of a number of energy quanta which are localized at points

            in space, which move without dividing, and which can only be produced and absorbed

            as complete units

The bound "oscillators" they emit and absorb electromagnetic waves of definite periods

Inquire into the condition of dynamic equilibrium associated with the interaction (or collision) of molecules

and electrons

The average kinetic energy of an oscillator electron must be equal to the average kinetic energy of a

translating gas molecule

An oscillator electron

Potential energies of the oscillator

Dynamic equilibrium is possible only when each oscillator has the average energy

There can be no talk of a definite energy distribution between ether and matter

The wider the range of wave numbers of the oscillators, the greater will be the radiation energy of the space

Maxwellian and electron theories

Monochromatic radiation of low density…behaves thermodynamically as though it consisted of a number

of independent energy quanta of magnitude

average magnitude of the energy quanta of the blackbody radiation

average magnitude of an energy quantum

energy quanta of magnitude

considering light to consist of such energy quanta

both the incident and emitted light consist of energy quanta of magnitude

incident energy quantum of frequency

incident energy quanta ---a light quantum

incident light quanta

light quanta of frequencies

the principle of conservation of energy requires that the energy of an emitted energy quantum cannot be

            greater than that of the incident light quantum

the quantity of light emitted

the incident light

incident energy quantum

other incident energy quanta

simultaneously interacting energy quanta

energy quantum of emitted light can receive its energy from several incident energy quanta

the incident (or emitted) light

energy behavior

the energy of light

incident light consists of energy quanta of magnitude

the ejection of electrons by light

energy quanta penetrate into the surface of a large body

light quantum delivers its entire energy to a single electron

electrons might receive their energy only in part from the light quantity

the ejected electrons leaving the body with the largest normal velocity

the frequency of the incident light must be a straight line…independent of the emitting substance

energy quantum of the incident light…delivers its energy of electrons

the velocity distribution of the ejected electrons will be independent of the intensity of the incident

            light

the number of electrons leaving the body will…be proportional to the intensity of the incident light

the energy of at least some of the quanta of the incident light is delivered completely to individual

            electrons

the kinetic energy of an electron goes into the production of many light energy quanta

an individual light energy quanta

the work of ionization…of a molecule cannot be greater than the energy of an absorbed light quantum

if every absorbed light energy quantum ionizes a molecule…

 

            In the previous selection, I have isolated the occurrences of the word-concept relating mainly to light and energy quanta. As one reads through the article, the interchange of the concepts of light and energy become mind-boggling. One loses track of whether there is a difference between the two concepts or, which one gives rise to the other.

            Distinctions occur with regard to apparently different concepts:

           

            The quanta

Light quantum

Energy quantum

Light consists of such energy quanta

            Light energy quantum

            Energy of light = energy quanta

            Independent energy quanta

            Incident and emitted light consist of energy quanta

            Incident energy quantum

            Incident light quanta

            Emitted energy quantum

            The energy of light

           

            In principle, it can be observed that the article apparently begins with a separation of light and energy, then one based on light quanta and energy quanta, to finally rest on light energy quanta. In the end, it would appear that light and energy are the same word-concepts attempting to distinguish some kind of difference between them. Possibly, had a statement been made from the very beginning that light is a form of energy would have made the science discourse less clumsy and confusing.

 

            The following set of isolated word-concepts demonstrates the emphasis placed on the word-concept of quantum/quanta. There is a passing definition of the relationship between the energy of a light ray and what Einstein has identified as energy quanta emphasized below.

 

The energy of a light ray …consists of a number of energy quanta… In my view, there are two main problems with this attempt at a definition of the relationship between light, energy and quanta. The word-concept energy is synonymous in both cases, in the word defined as in the wording of the definition. Throughout the article, however, as we observed in the previous set of word-concepts, there appears to be some kind of distinction and unique relationship between light quanta and energy quanta throughout the article. However, in the end the wording of light energy quanta appears to thrown both concepts into the same basket.

 

            The other main problem with the attempted definition concerns the redundancy in the wording of the definition: "number of energy quanta". Number and quantum are one and the same. In fact, as shall be shown below, it is possible to read Einstein's article without the word-concept "quantum or quanta" and understand its meaning perfectly well. The problem arises and persists in today's science writing where the idea of quantum physics merely emphasizes the idea of "size/number" without really understanding the why behind such an emphasis.

 

            In my view, the matter-energy events of spacetime/motion are not determined solely by their size or number values ---obviously. It would appear that when physicists discovered the existence of certain numerical values, which derive from relationships of proportion in matter-energy events they were unable to accommodate these findings properly. This came about because the number/quantity observations [deemed then quanta] were conceptualized as an anti-thesis to the idea of wave theory in physics [then the ruling thesis in physics]. Hence, the best outcome that was derived consisted of the current synthetic belief in wave-particle duality, which has produced so much theoretical conflict in the study of matter-energy of spacetime/motion. The theoretical havoc appears in the continuous questioning of when [time] a certain matter-energy event is a particle, and, when it is a wave or, when it is both at the same time.

 

 

A content analysis: summary of order of appearance of word-concepts and corresponding theses.

 

Electrons

Energy is to be considered a continuous spatial function

Of all purely electromagnetic phenomena including light

Energy of a ponderable object

Energy of a beam of light…is continuously spread an ever increasing volume

The wave theory of light…may lead to contradictions …applied to the phenomena of emission and

            transformation of light

The energy of light is discontinuously distributed in space

The energy of a light ray …consists of a number of energy quanta which are localized at points

            in space, which move without dividing, and which can only be produced and absorbed

            as complete units

The bound "oscillators" they emit and absorb electromagnetic waves of definite periods

Inquire into the condition of dynamic equilibrium associated with the interaction (or collision) of molecules

and electrons

The average kinetic energy of an oscillator electron must be equal to the average kinetic energy of a

translating gas molecule

An oscillator electron

Potential energies of the oscillator

Dynamic equilibrium is possible only when each oscillator has the average energy

There can be no talk of a definite energy distribution between ether and matter

The wider the range of wave numbers of the oscillators, the greater will be the radiation energy of the space

Maxwellian and electron theories

Monochromatic radiation of low density…behaves thermodynamically as though it consisted of a number

of independent energy quanta of magnitude

average magnitude of the energy quanta of the blackbody radiation

average magnitude of an energy quantum

energy quanta of magnitude

considering light to consist of such energy quanta

both the incident and emitted light consist of energy quanta of magnitude

incident energy quantum of frequency

incident energy quanta ---a light quantum

incident light quanta

light quanta of frequencies

the principle of conservation of energy requires that the energy of an emitted energy quantum cannot be

            greater than that of the incident light quantum

the quantity of light emitted

the incident light

incident energy quantum

other incident energy quanta

simultaneously interacting energy quanta

energy quantum of emitted light can receive its energy from several incident energy quanta

the incident (or emitted) light

energy behavior

the energy of light

incident light consists of energy quanta of magnitude

the ejection of electrons by light

energy quanta penetrate into the surface of a large body

light quantum delivers its entire energy to a single electron

electrons might receive their energy only in part from the light quantity

the ejected electrons leaving the body with the largest normal velocity

the frequency of the incident light must be a straight line…independent of the emitting substance

energy quantum of the incident light…delivers its energy of electrons

the velocity distribution of the ejected electrons will be independent of the intensity of the incident

            light

the number of electrons leaving the body will…be proportional to the intensity of the incident light

the energy of at least some of the quanta of the incident light is delivered completely to individual

            electrons

the kinetic energy of an electron goes into the production of many light energy quanta

an individual light energy quanta

the work of ionization…of a molecule cannot be greater than the energy of an absorbed light quantum

if every absorbed light energy quantum ionizes a molecule…

 

Summary: Relevant mentions of the word-concept quantum/a

 

The energy of a light ray …consists of a number of energy quanta which are localized at points

            in space, which move without dividing, and which can only be produced and absorbed

            as complete units

Monochromatic radiation of low density…behaves thermodynamically as though it consisted of a number

of independent energy quanta of magnitude

average magnitude of the energy quanta of the blackbody radiation

average magnitude of an energy quantum

energy quanta of magnitude

considering light to consist of such energy quanta

incident energy quantum of frequency

incident energy quanta ---a light quantum

incident light quanta

light quanta of frequencies

the principle of conservation of energy requires that the energy of an emitted energy quantum cannot be

            greater than that of the incident light quantum

the quantity of light emitted

incident energy quantum

other incident energy quanta

simultaneously interacting energy quanta

energy quantum of emitted light can receive its energy from several incident energy quanta

incident light consists of energy quanta of magnitude

energy quanta penetrate into the surface of a large body

light quantum delivers its entire energy to a single electron

energy quantum of the incident light…delivers its energy of electrons

the energy of at least some of the quanta of the incident light is delivered completely to individual

            electrons

the kinetic energy of an electron goes into the production of many light energy quanta

an individual light energy quanta

the work of ionization…of a molecule cannot be greater than the energy of an absorbed light quantum

if every absorbed light energy quantum ionizes a molecule…

 

            Note how the word-concepts light quanta and energy quanta are maintained separately throughout the discourse of the article, and then are combined at the very end into the word-concept light energy quanta. Theoretical distinctions are suggested in their separate use initially, only to be eliminated in the end by their combined conceptual indifference.

 

            Students may wish to better understand what is being stated by substituting the word-concept of quantum|quanta for that of "quantity or the amount of". Consider the following example:

 

"…energy quantum of emitted light can receive its energy from several incident energy quanta…"

 

The amount or quantity of energy of emitted light can receive its energy from several incident amounts of energy"….

 

            This translation of the word quanta into the idea of quantity or amount of allows one to observe a redundant statement, which sounds quite trivial.

 

Consider another example:

 

"…the principle of conservation of energy requires that the energy of an emitted energy quantum cannot be greater than that of the incident light quantum…"

 

"…the principle of conservation of energy requires that the energy of an emitted amount of energy cannot be greater than that of the amount of incident light…"

 

            Again, when speaking about amounts and quantities of energy and light, the previous translation appears to be correct and redundant as well.

 

            Even the attempted definition of the word-concept quanta falls prey to the general tendency of redundant statements in the article:

 

"…The energy of a light ray …consists of a number of energy quanta which are localized at points

            in space, which move without dividing, and which can only be produced and absorbed

            as complete units…"

 

Consider its translation:

 

"…The energy of a light ray…consists of a number of quantities of energy which are localized at points in space…etc."

 

            Again, one could be in agreement with this statement without recurring to the invention of a word-concept in Latin that only appears to create something new about the matter-energy event being discussed.

 

            Light is energy, and light|energy exists in certain amounts of light|energy. The problem is that back then, in 1905, the discovery that light|energy came in specific, numerical values of quantities of itself was something novel. Hence, the tendency to create a new word-concept with the discovery of a new idea or relationship in matter-energy in spacetime/motion.

 

            Another way to appreciate the value and use of the word-concept quantum|quanta is to eliminate it from the discourse in order to observe whether it adds value to the discussion or not. In other words, by eliminating the new word-concept one is able to determine whether it actually means something additional to the events being examined theoretically. Consider the following exercise by reading the word-concept quantum|quanta out of the text of the article. Selected examples are presented:

 

A content analysis: summary of order of appearance of word-concepts and corresponding theses

 

Read Without the Word-Concept Quantum|Quanta.

 

The energy of a light ray …consists of a number of energy quanta which are localized at points

            in space, which move without dividing, and which can only be produced and absorbed

            as complete units

Monochromatic radiation of low density…behaves thermodynamically as though it consisted of a number

of independent energy quanta of magnitude

average magnitude of the energy quanta of the blackbody radiation

average magnitude of an energy quantum

energy quanta of magnitude

considering light to consist of such energy quanta

both the incident and emitted light consist of energy quanta of magnitude

incident energy quantum of frequency

incident energy quanta ---a light quantum

incident light quanta

light quanta of frequencies

the principle of conservation of energy requires that the energy of an emitted energy quantum cannot be

            greater than that of the incident light quantum

the quantity of light emitted

incident energy quantum

other incident energy quanta

simultaneously interacting energy quanta

energy quantum of emitted light can receive its energy from several incident energy quanta

incident light consists of energy quanta of magnitude

energy quanta penetrate into the surface of a large body

light quantum delivers its entire energy to a single electron

energy quantum of the incident light…delivers its energy of electrons

the energy of at least some of the quanta of the incident light is delivered completely to individual

            electrons

the kinetic energy of an electron goes into the production of many light energy quanta

an individual light energy quanta

the work of ionization…of a molecule cannot be greater than the energy of an absorbed light quantum

if every absorbed light energy quantum ionizes a molecule

 

            It would appear to me from the previous exercise that the word-concept quantum|quanta may be eliminated form the discourse and the ideas are essentially comprehensible. In fact, in reading the text without the word-concept quantum|quanta a sense of "oh, now I understand" comes to mind in the reading of the translated text.

 

            In order to better understand the manner in which the word-concepts of light quanta and energy quanta are first maintained separately in the text and then combined, the following highlights of the text are made.

 

 

A content analysis: summary of order of appearance of word-concepts and corresponding theses.

Summary: Light|Energy

 

Electrons

Energy is to be considered a continuous spatial function

Of all purely electromagnetic phenomena including light

Energy of a ponderable object

Energy of a beam of light…is continuously spread an ever increasing volume

The wave theory of light…may lead to contradictions …applied to the phenomena of emission and

            transformation of light

The energy of light is discontinuously distributed in space

The energy of a light ray …consists of a number of energy quanta which are localized at points

            in space, which move without dividing, and which can only be produced and absorbed

            as complete units

The bound "oscillators" they emit and absorb electromagnetic waves of definite periods

Inquire into the condition of dynamic equilibrium associated with the interaction (or collision) of molecules

and electrons

The average kinetic energy of an oscillator electron must be equal to the average kinetic energy of a

translating gas molecule

An oscillator electron

Potential energies of the oscillator

Dynamic equilibrium is possible only when each oscillator has the average energy

There can be no talk of a definite energy distribution between ether and matter

The wider the range of wave numbers of the oscillators, the greater will be the radiation energy of the space

Maxwellian and electron theories

Monochromatic radiation of low density…behaves thermodynamically as though it consisted of a number

of independent energy quanta of magnitude

average magnitude of the energy quanta of the blackbody radiation

average magnitude of an energy quantum

energy quanta of magnitude

considering light to consist of such energy quanta

both the incident and emitted light consist of energy quanta of magnitude

incident energy quantum of frequency

incident energy quanta ---a light quantum

incident light quanta

light quanta of frequencies

the principle of conservation of energy requires that the energy of an emitted energy quantum cannot be

            greater than that of the incident light quantum

the quantity of light emitted

the incident light

incident energy quantum

other incident energy quanta

simultaneously interacting energy quanta

energy quantum of emitted light can receive its energy from several incident energy quanta

the incident (or emitted) light

energy behavior

the energy of light

incident light consists of energy quanta of magnitude

the ejection of electrons by light

energy quanta penetrate into the surface of a large body

light quantum delivers its entire energy to a single electron

electrons might receive their energy only in part from the light quantity

the ejected electrons leaving the body with the largest normal velocity

the frequency of the incident light must be a straight line…independent of the emitting substance

energy quantum of the incident light…delivers its energy of electrons

the velocity distribution of the ejected electrons will be independent of the intensity of the incident

            light

the number of electrons leaving the body will…be proportional to the intensity of the incident light

the energy of at least some of the quanta of the incident light is delivered completely to individual

            electrons

the kinetic energy of an electron goes into the production of many light energy quanta

an individual light energy quanta

the work of ionization…of a molecule cannot be greater than the energy of an absorbed light quantum

if every absorbed light energy quantum ionizes a molecule…

 

 

A content analysis: summary of order of appearance of word-concepts and corresponding theses.

 

The energy of light is discontinuously distributed in space

The energy of a light ray …consists of a number of energy quanta which are localized at points

            in space, which move without dividing, and which can only be produced and absorbed

            as complete units

Monochromatic radiation of low density…behaves thermodynamically as though it consisted of a number

of independent energy quanta of magnitude

average magnitude of the energy quanta of the blackbody radiation

average magnitude of an energy quantum

energy quanta of magnitude

considering light to consist of such energy quanta

both the incident and emitted light consist of energy quanta of magnitude

incident energy quantum of frequency

incident energy quanta ---a light quantum

incident light quanta

light quanta of frequencies

the principle of conservation of energy requires that the energy of an emitted energy quantum cannot be

            greater than that of the incident light quantum

the quantity of light emitted

incident energy quantum

other incident energy quanta

simultaneously interacting energy quanta

energy quantum of emitted light can receive its energy from several incident energy quanta

the energy of light

incident light consists of energy quanta of magnitude

energy quanta penetrate into the surface of a large body

light quantum delivers its entire energy to a single electron

electrons might receive their energy only in part from the light quantity

energy quantum of the incident light…delivers its energy of electrons

the energy of at least some of the quanta of the incident light is delivered completely to individual

            electrons

the kinetic energy of an electron goes into the production of many light energy quanta

an individual light energy quanta

the work of ionization…of a molecule cannot be greater than the energy of an absorbed light quantum

if every absorbed light energy quantum ionizes a molecule…

 

 

 

Another summary in content-analysis could be effected with regard to the word-concepts of incident and emitted light|energy. The possibilities of content-analysis are unending and provide a breakdown of the main ideas in Einstein's work.

 

 

Summary: Incidental Light | Emitting Light

 

The wave theory of light…may lead to contradictions …applied to the phenomena of emission and

            transformation of light

The bound "oscillators" they emit and absorb electromagnetic waves of definite periods

both the incident and emitted light consist of energy quanta of magnitude

incident energy quantum of frequency

incident energy quanta ---a light quantum

incident light quanta

the principle of conservation of energy requires that the energy of an emitted energy quantum cannot be

            greater than that of the incident light quantum

the quantity of light emitted

the incident light

incident energy quantum

other incident energy quanta

energy quantum of emitted light can receive its energy from several incident energy quanta

the incident (or emitted) light

incident light consists of energy quanta of magnitude

the frequency of the incident light must be a straight line…independent of the emitting substance

energy quantum of the incident light…delivers its energy of electrons

the velocity distribution of the ejected electrons will be independent of the intensity of the incident

            light

the number of electrons leaving the body will…be proportional to the intensity of the incident light

the energy of at least some of the quanta of the incident light is delivered completely to individual

            electrons

 

 

Summary: Incidental Light | Emitting Energy

 

The wave theory of light…may lead to contradictions …applied to the phenomena of emission and

            transformation of light

The bound "oscillators" they emit and absorb electromagnetic waves of definite periods

both the incident and emitted light consist of energy quanta of magnitude

incident energy quantum of frequency

incident energy quanta ---a light quantum

the principle of conservation of energy requires that the energy of an emitted energy quantum cannot be

            greater than that of the incident light quantum

incident energy quantum

other incident energy quanta

energy quantum of emitted light can receive its energy from several incident energy quanta

 

            After reading the text of Albert Einstein's 1905 article, one gets the impression that the word-concept quantum|quanta may serve as a theoretical novelty. It in fact appears to offer no added information to the analysis, inasmuch as it appears to be synonymous with the idea of "quantity" and/or "amount of" light|energy in specific matter-energy events in spacetime/motion. The idea that a specific quantum|quanta of energy|light exists outside of what light|energy actually are in reality appears to create a theoretical category beyond the light|energy events themselves.

 

            One may ask whether it might be more effective in terms of theoretical interpretation of matter|energy to simply employ the idea that matter-energy occurs in specific amounts or quantities of either relational [energy, motion] or spatial [spacetime] coordinates of specific identifiable events. By employing the terms and word-concepts of quantum|quanta, it would appear that the physics of nature has added something else into the spacetime/motion mix. It would appear as though the quantum|quanta are actually something else, rather than specific amounts|quantities of coordinate matter-energy events.

 

            The quantified perception of spacetime/motion derives in the perennial search for the basic quarks of existence. Scientists search for a specific matter-energy event that contains the particular amounts|quantities of matter-energy as expressed in the numerical values identified in the relationships and proportions of spacetime/motion and how it exists.

 

            Students are encouraged to carry out a content-analysis of the word-concepts in physics in order to better understand the nature of science writing today.

 

*****

 

A Content Analysis of Selected Word-Concepts in

Albert Einstein's 1905 Article

"Concerning an Heuristic Point of View

Toward the Emission and Transformation of Light"

 

By Charles William Johnson

©2014 Copyrighted

 

Earth/matriX: Science in Ancient Artwork Series ISSN-1526-3312
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  5. Einstein's Formula and Varatioins of Redundancies
  6. The Formula in Einstein's Equation
  7. Einstein’s Formula: A Sleight of Hand
  8. Planck Mass and Planck Energy Questioned
  9. Planck Units of Mass, Momentum and Energy: c7 , c8 , c9 Respectively, Powers of the Speed of a Light Photon
  10. The Earth/matriX: Table of Selected Fundamental Physical Constants Derive ~ c9 Fractal Numerical Value ~ 1.956078711
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  12. Electromagnetic Particle-Waves [EMPW]: Superluminal White Light and Its Colors
  13. Superluminal Velocities: Electromagnetic Particle-Waves Always Travel Faster than the Defined Speed of Light in a Vacuum
  14. A Spacetime/Motion: Analysis of Relativity Theory and The Speed of Light in a Vacuum
  15. Misconceptions in the Theory of Relativity: "Traveling Back in Time"
  16. A Content Analysis of Selected Word-Concepts in Albert Einstein's 1905 Article "Concerning an Heuristic Point of View Toward the Emission and Transformation of Light"



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